BURGUM FAMILY HISTORY SOCIETY

The Burgum family history society is a member of the Guild of one name studies and researches the names
BURGUM
and BURGHAM

Places

  1. RETURN TO PLACES LIST
  2. About the Forest of Dean
  3. Abenhall, Gloucestershire
  4. Adits (definition)
  5. Anchor Inn, Lydbrook
  6. Ariconium, Herefordshire
  7. Arthur and Edward Colliery
  8. Bigsweir, Gloucestershire
  9. Bishopswood, Herefordshireshire
  10. Bixslade (Bicslade)
  11. Blakeney, Gloucestershire
  12. Bloomery (definition)
  13. Bradley House
  14. Brain, Cornelius
  15. Brain, Sir Francis
  16. Bream, Gloucestershire
  17. Bullo Pill, Gloucestershire
  18. Cannop Colliery
  19. Cinderford, Gloucestershire
  20. Clearwell, Gloucestershire
  21. Coalway, Gloucestershire
  22. Coleford, Gloucestershire
  23. Crawshay, Henry
  24. Danby Lodge
  25. Darkhill Brick, Colliery + Ironworks
  26. Dates in the Forest of Dean
  27. Dean Forest (Mines) Act 1838
  28. Dean Forest Railway
  29. Dean Forest (Reafforestation)
    Act 1668
  30. The Dean Forest Riots
  31. Dean Hall, Littledean
  32. Dean Heritage Centre
  33. Dean Road
  34. Delves (definition)
  35. Drew, Catherine
  36. Drifts (definition)
  37. Drybrook, Gloucestershire
  38. Eastern United Colliery
  39. Edge Hills Quarry
  40. Elwood, Gloucestershire
  41. Encloosure Act (1808)
  42. Euroclydon House
  43. Fairplay Iron Mine
  44. Favourite Free Mine
  45. Findall Iron Mine
  46. Flaxley, Gloucestershire
  47. Forest Of Dean Central Railway
  48. Free Miners
  49. Gale (definition)
  50. Gaveller (definition)
  51. Gunns Mill
  52. Green Bottom, Gloucestershire
  53. The Haie (house)
  54. Haie Hill Tunnel
  55. Harvey, F. W.
  56. The Hayes, Blakeney
  57. Hope Mansell, Herefordshire
  58. Hopewell Engine Colliery
  59. Horlick, James and William
  60. Iron Mine Level, Lydbrook
  61. Kensley Lodge
  62. Kings Lodge
  63. Littledean, Gloucestershire
  64. Lower Redbrook, Gloucestershire
  65. Lydbrook, Gloucestershire
  66. Lydney, Gloucestershire
  67. Mine Train Quarry
  68. Mitcheldean, Gloucestershire
  69. Monument Mine
  70. Mushet, David
  71. Mushet, Robert
  72. Newland, Gloucestershire
  73. New Mills
  74. Newnham, Gloucestershire
  75. Norchard Colliery
  76. North United Mine
  77. Oaklands Court
  78. Oaklands Park
  79. Offas Dyke
  80. Old Bow Iron Mine
  81. Old Ham Iron Mine
  82. Parkend, Gloucestershire
  83. Perserverance Iron Mine
  84. Pill (definition)
  85. Pillowell, Gloucestershire
  86. Point Quarry
  87. Princess Royal Colliery
  88. Protheroe, Edward
  89. Pubs of the Forest of Dean
  90. Purton, Gloucestershire
  91. Redbrook, Gloucestershire
  92. Ruardean, Gloucestershire
  93. Ruardean Hill, Gloucestershire
  94. Ruardean Woodside, Gloucestershire
  95. Scowles (definition)
  96. Siddon, Sarah
  97. Severn and Wye Railway
  98. Severn and Wye Tramway
  99. Severn Railway Bridge
  100. Severn Road Bridge
  101. Shakemantle Iron Mine
  102. Sling, Gloucestershire
  103. Soudley, Gloucestershire
  104. South Wales Railway
  105. Speculation Colliery
  106. Speech House
  107. Speech House Hill Colliery
  108. St Briavels Castle
  109. St Briavels, May-pole
  110. Staple Edge Lodge
  111. Strip-and at-it Colliery
  112. Symonds Yat
  113. Teague, James
  114. Teague, Moses
  115. Trafalgar Colliery
  116. Tramroad
  117. Trow
  118. True Blue Colliery
  119. Union Colliery
  120. Upper and Middle Forge
  121. Upper Lydbrook Station
  122. Upper Mill, Edge Hills
  123. Upper Redbrook
  124. Verderer (definition)
  125. Verderers' Court
  126. Welshbury Hill Fort
  127. Westbury Brook Iron Mine
  128. Whitecliff Furnace
  129. Whitecliff House
  130. Whitecliff Quarry
  131. Whitecroft
  132. Whitecross Manor
  133. Wigpool, Gloucestershire
  134. Wintour, Sir John
  135. Woodside Colliery, Ruardean
  136. Worcester Walk
  137. Yat (definition)
  138. Yorkley Court
Ariconium

Ariconium was a small Roman town, road station and place of iron working in Roman Britain. It was located at Bury Hill, between Weston under Penyard and Bromash not far from Ross on Wye. Evidence indicates the site existed before the Roman era and then came under Roman influence. It has yet to be fully excavated, but there is lots of evidence of iron-woking, smelting anf forges, together with the foundations of several large buildings and some tessellated pavements. It was founded in about 50 AD and consisted of a military fort, a settlement and an industrial complex. The site was abandoned round about 360 AD but little is known about the circumstances, however there was some evidence of burning. There was a general breakdown in authority at that time and violence and plundering probably resulting in the abandonment of the site. Excavations indicated the existence of bloom furnaces, forges, and iron workings.

Before a chance discovery in 1758, little was known about Ariconium or its’ location. However several excavations over the last two centuries has revealed some of the story. The site is approximately rectangular and contained streets with domestic dwellings, industrial premises such as iron workings, shops and burial sites.

Nearby Forest of Dean was an ancient source of iron ore and charcoal and there is evidence of early mining and smelting, with many sites consisting of groups of forges. The site of Ariconium was on the rise of a hill, as that the terrain increased the airflow passing over it. The bloomeries here were using a process that produced imperfect iron, together with dirt and cinders. The Romans contributed the use of bellows, creating an air blast that was much hotter. This produced better iron, albeit inferior to the techniques used in later centuries. Huge amounts of charcoal would have been necessary and the result was that large amounts of cinder refuse or scoriae was dumped in great piles at such sites. So this was a large iron-working site left behind massive refuse piles covering 100 acres, although some suggest it might be more than double this size. Pottery remnants were found here and numerous artifacts, including pre-Roman British and Roman coins.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle stated that the Romans, in 418 AD, collected all the treasures of "gold" (valuables) which they had in Britain, and part of the gold they had concealed in the ground that no man might afterwards find them. And part they carried into Gaul. Gold, of course, was a figurative term for any weath rather than actual gold. Basically the Romans buried what they could not carry!

Acting as a road station, a stopping off point, numerous roads and tracks intersected here or nearby. A. W. Trotter, in his 1936 book, The Dean Road tells us the Dean Road ran from Lydney, via Littledean, to Mitcheldean He continues - "Whether or not the road extended beyond the latter place we have not yet been able to ascertain, but if it did, Ariconium could be, its possible - one might say probable - destination." Indeed it is considered likely an Ariconium to Mitcheldean road would have also gone to Newnham on Severn, which was a known Roman crossing point of the River Severn. The Dean Road is still visible at Oldcroft and at Blackpool Bridge (although much repaired at a later date) on the Blakeney to Ruspidge Road.

Picture (right) - Several pre-Roman British coins were discovered at Ariconium, including one minted by Cunobelin. This is an example of a Cunobelin coin, not the actual one found.